On November 25, 2015, the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC) published a White Paper for consultation. It is seeking comment on two proposals which, if approved and implemented, would change the current structure for distributing mutual funds in Canada. A “restricted practice” policy and a policy involving directed commissions are being proposed. RESTRICTED PRACTICE POLICY The proposal would allow an IIROC dealer member to use representatives who would not advise and would only offer mutual funds and exchange-traded funds (restricted dealing representatives). To do so, they would not have to be trained and qualified to advise or trade the other categories of securities normally offered by the dealer. An IIROC dealer member who wishes to hire restricted dealing representatives currently must ask IIROC for an exemption from the proficiency upgrade requirement for a mutual fund representative who will work for it. The considerations described in the White Paper stem from such an exemption request. According to a survey of around forty brokerage firms, the conclusions of which are described in the White Paper, this proposal raises the issue once again of a possible merger between the Mutual Fund Dealers Association of Canada (MFDA) and IIROC. It would also harmonize the respective missions of these self-regulatory organizations (SROs) regarding the regulation of mutual fund representatives, at least those who are registered as restricted dealing representatives by IIROC. DIRECTED COMMISSION POLICY The proposed directed commission policy would allow an IIROC dealer member to pay commissions directly to an unregistered personal corporation controlled by a representative. This proposal is being put forward to support the restricted practice proposal since the survey mentioned above showed that “for many registered firms and individuals, eliminating the proficiency upgrade requirement on the IIROC platform is of limited interest unless directed commissions are also allowed”. The MFDA already allows commissions to be directed to unregistered corporations provided a written agreement is signed by the mutual fund dealer, the representative and the representative’s personal corporation stating that the dealer and the representative must comply with MFDA requirements and the representative and the personal corporation must both provide the mutual fund dealer full access to their books and records. ISSUES SPECIFIC TO QUEBEC In Quebec, the Chambre de la sécurité financière has exclusive responsibility for self-regulating mutual fund representatives under An Act respecting the distribution of financial products and services (Distribution Act). This means that a new IIROC category of restricted dealing representatives would require legislative changes in Quebec to allow a mutual fund representative to only be a member of IIROC through a dealer member of that organi- zation. Such changes to the Distribution Act are unlikely in the foreseeable future, at least until the Department of Finance has completed its review of the enforcement of the Distribution Act. We would also add to this list of conditions the approval of changes to the orders recognizing IIROC as a securities self- regulatory organization and the possible re-examination of exemptions from certain requirements of Regulation 31-103 which are granted to IIROC and MFDA dealer members. Such a re- examination would be required since such orders and exemptions are not issued based on an overlapping of the regulation of mutual fund representatives attached to these respective categories of dealers. MFDA CONSULTATION Further to the publication of the White Paper, the MFDA recently released the results of a consultation held with 79% of its members on the potential impacts of the application of IIROC’s proposed policies. If the restricted practice policy is adopted, most MFDA member firms believe that they would either go out of business or be forced to merge with firms registered with IIROC. Such a step would only benefit MFDA member corporations that are also affiliated with an IIROC member corporation, which would allow them to reduce their operational costs, increase efficiency and be more competitive. MFDA members generally agree that the current SRO structure adequately protects investors and that the inevitable restructuring of this system that would result from the adoption of the restricted practice policy should be aimed at protecting investors, not reducing costs. MFDA members are therefore leaning in favour of the status quo with respect to the new policies discussed in the IIROC White Paper. The White Paper consultation will end on March 31, 2016.
- Québec, 2000
Partner - Leader of the Business Law Group
Josianne Beaudry is a member of the Business law group. Her practice is primarily focused on securities law. She advises financial sector participants on the application of regulations relating to securities and corporate governance.
Ms. Beaudry assists clients carrying out public and private financings, corporate reorganizations, as well as mergers and acquisitions. She also helps publicly traded companies maintain their reporting issuer status.
Ms. Beaudry also advises investment fund managers, dealers, and portfolio managers in matters related to their registration and activities.
- The Canadian Legal LEXPERT® Directory in the field of Mining Law, 2022
- The Best Lawyers in Canada in the field of Mining Law, since 2018
- The Best Lawyers in Canada in the field of Mergers & Acquisitions Law, since 2018
- The Best Lawyers in Canada, Lawyer of the Year, Mining Law, 2020
- The Canadian Lawyer in the field of Mining Law and Corporate Finance & Securities, since 2019
- LL.B., Université du Québec à Montréal, 1999
- Post-graduate degree in Taxation, HEC Montréal
Boards and Professional Affiliations
- Member of the Executive Committee of the firm (Lavery Lawyers)
- Was part of the Board of Directors of the firm (Lavery Lawyers), 2018 to 2020
- Member of the Board of directors of the Quebec Mineral Exploration Association
- Member of the Executive Committee and Board of directors of Finance Montréal, Québec's financial cluster
- Member of the Board of directors of the Douglas Mental Health University Institute Foundation
The TSX Venture Exchange (the “TSX-V”) has released a white paper which describes how it intends to become an attractive public market for early-stage companies from fast-growing sectors such as technology, clean technology, renewable energy and life sciences (the “high-growth sectors”) and how it intends to ensure that private equity firms, venture capital (“VC”) funds and angel investors consider the TSX-V as an effective strategy to exit the capital of such early-stage companies. The question remains whether these changes will result in a smaller-size IPO on the TSX-V becoming an attractive exit for the VC funds invested in a large number of these companies. REVIEW OF SOME OF THE CHANGES AND STRATEGIES PROPOSED BY THE TSX-V The TSX-V indicated that it intends to generally review its policies and tailor them to further reflect the needs of the companies from the high-growth sectors, recognizing that such policies were traditionally more adapted to the mining and oil and gas sectors. It also intends to hire a sales team dedicated to bring companies from these high-growth sectors to become listed on the TSX-V. The sales team will notably attempt to introduce the dealers community to companies from these sectors that can grow their business and create wealth for investors. The TSX-V recognizes that the reluctance for such companies to become listed on the TSX-V is in part the consequence of the administrative and compliance costs resulting from such a listing. It therefore proposes specific changes to its rules that are aimed at reducing the costs and simplifying the process for a company wishing to be listed on the TSX-V. One of the affected rules would be the sponsorship requirement. While this requirement can be waived, the TSX-V currently requires that an application to list on the TSX-V be sponsored by an existing member of the TSX-V or of the Toronto Stock Exchange. The TSX-V proposes to eliminate this requirement. Given that obtaining sponsorship typically takes several months and can cost a company between $50,000 and $100,000, the TSX-V believes that this change will allow companies wishing to achieve an IPO to save time and money. Another set of rules that might be reviewed is the escrow requirements. Securities regulators and the TSX-V each impose escrow requirements on the securities of the company completing an IPO held by the directors, officers, principal shareholders and promoters of the company, which typically includes all the VC funds invested in such company. These requirements result in the VC fund that has invested in the capital of the company requesting to be listed being typically required to enter into escrow agreements with an escrow agent whereby the shares or debt securities of the company held by the VC fund are put in escrow with the escrow agent for a period of 18 to 36 months after the IPO. The TSX-V has indicated in its white paper that it will abandon its own requirements and simply impose compliance with the requirements of the Canadian Securities Administrators (to which such companies were already subject to and which are similar to the escrow requirements of the TSX-V). Being subject to only one set of rules will simplify things in that regard. The TSX-V also intends to increase its general use of technological tools, particularly by offering an automated online filing system for additional types of transactions (the white paper does not specify which ones). This is intended to allow companies to file routine transactions themselves rather than having to use the services of external lawyers, and therefore reduce their costs. The TSX-V also seeks to develop mobile and web-based tools to stream summaries of securities offerings by companies listed on the TSX-V in order to facilitate more direct communications between the issuers and their investors. Other changes are proposed and can be found in the full version of the white paper available on the TSX-V’s website. CAN THE TSX-V BE SUCCESSFUL IN ITS APPROACH? All these changes aimed at increasing the listings by early-stage companies from the technology, clean technology, renewable energy and life science sectors should be welcomed by the VC community. IPOs remain an attractive exit for VC funds who often are major shareholders of these companies. It remains one of the best methods for a VC fund manager to establish a track record to attract investors for its follow-on funds in a context where such investors are often forced to rely on very few performance indicators to establish the skills of the VC fund manager and decide whether to invest in its follow-on funds or not. It should also be considered by entrepreneurs as one of the preferred methods of exit that they can provide to the VC funds that have invested in the capital of their company, given that it is one of the rare methods that will ensure to these entrepreneurs that they remain at the helm of the company. Other forms of exit, such as an acquisition or a secondary sale to a private equity fund focused on growth stage companies, will often result in forced changes to the management of the company, making the entrepreneur effectively lose the control of its business. In the context of an IPO, while the entrepreneur will have to report to its shareholders and may be vulnerable in the future to hostile take-over bids, the management team will generally remain in place in the short term (except for some additions to ensure that the necessary skills are present). Further, public markets remain the deepest source of capital, making IPOs being particularly well suited for these high-growth companies. However, to be fully effective, these initiatives will need to receive the support of the Canadian Securities Administrators, given that the major costs associated with an IPO are those associated with the rules imposed by these securities regulators and not by the TSX-V. In the meantime, Lavery intends to fully collaborate with the TSX-V in allowing it to become more attractive for these types of companies.
Equity crowdfunding will soon have a new framework in which to operate in Canada and this is excellent news for investors and startups alike. On November 5, 2015, the Canadian Securities Administrators announced that regulatory authorities in Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia published the final version of Multilateral Instrument 45-108 - Crowdfunding (the “Equity Crowdfunding Prospectus Exemption”), which is expected to come into force on January 25, 2016. Crowdfunding will no longer be limited to advance purchases of goods and services in Canada, as the new Equity Crowdfunding Prospectus Exemption will allow startups to raise capital by issuing and selling securities to the public, using online funding portals, without having to file a prospectus. An offering document that meets regulatory requirements will nonetheless have to be prepared and published on the electronic funding portal. The document must contain certain particular information on the corporation, its officers, and the terms of the offering. ISSUER ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Under the Equity Crowdfunding Prospectus Exemption, eligible issuers may raise a maximum of $1,500,000 per 12-month period. The main eligibility criteria for an issuer are namely that it be incorporated under Canadian laws and headquartered in Canada, that a majority of its directors reside in Canada, and that the issuer is not an investment fund. SUBSCRIPTION LIMITS FOR EACH INVESTOR Subscription limits for investors will vary depending on whether an investor is an accredited investor (as defined in the securities regulations) or not. In Ontario only, another category of investors, “permitted clients” (as defined in the securities regulations), is subject to its own specific investment limits. Investments by non-accredited investors will be limited to $2,500 per private placement (up to an annual maximum of $10,000, only in Ontario). Investments by accredited investors will also be limited, albeit to a greater amount of $25,000 per investment (up to an annual maximum of $50,000, only in Ontario). In Ontario, investors who are classified as permitted clients will not be limited in the amount of capital that they can invest. LEAD INVESTOR INCENTIVES It is no coincidence that accredited investors qualify for higher investment limits. The intention is to encourage them to act as lead investors who can set the pace for less experienced, non-accredited investors, by providing skills and expertise in management for the benefit of all investors. The emergence of lead investors is also encouraged by the fact that issuers will be able to distribute their securities under other prospectus exemptions during the crowdfunding distribution period with different prices, terms and conditions from those being distributed under the Equity Crowdfunding Prospectus Exemption. This type of model has already proven advantageous in the United States, where equity crowdfunding syndicates have been developed. Such syndicates, which are made up of angel investors and venture capital funds, allow small investors to invest their money in tandem with more experienced investors. CONTINUOUS DISCLOSURE Issuers who issue securities pursuant to the Equity Crowdfunding Prospectus Exemption will also be subject to certain continuous disclosure obligations, including the obligation provide the relevant securities commissions with financial statements and to make such financial statements available to investors within 120 days of their financial year end. The extent of such continuous disclosure obligations will vary in accordance with the total amount of funds raised by the issuer pursuant to one or more prospectus exemptions, from its date of formation to the end of its last financial year, based on the following thresholds: $249,999 or less: no requirement Between $250,000 and $749,999: financial statements accompanied by an examiner’s report or an auditor’s report $750,000 or more: financial statements accompanied by an auditor’s report In all cases, if the issuer is already a reporting issuer as defined by securities regulations, it will still be subject to any continuous disclosure obligations that already applied. CONCLUSION The Equity Crowdfunding Prospectus Exemption will open up markets to investors big and small, and allow them to build valuable relationships with startups early on. It will be interesting to see if the Equity Crowdfunding Prospectus Exemption will generate sufficient lead investors for equity crowdfunding syndicates to be put into place, as they have been in the United States.
New requirements for private placements (“Regulation 45-106”) Obligation to know your investor well Issuer’s obligations: Ask questions Verify the investor’s declared income and assets Confirm the relationship between the investor and the issuer Obtain proof of the investor’s status Keep the documents on file Last May, the Canadian Securities Administrators amended Regulation 45-106 respecting Prospectus Exemptions (“Regulation 45-106”) as well as the Policy Statement to Regulation 45-106 (“Policy Statement”). Recap We will first review the scope of the application of Regulation 45-106. The main purpose of this regulation, which was first adopted in September 2005, was to uniformize the Canadian rules for the distributions of securities under an exemption from the requirement to prepare a prospectus. An important reform of this regulation dealt with the rules applicable to private issuers (previously known as closed companies). Since then, the issuance of securities by a private issuer constitutes a public offering, but remains exempt from the requirement to prepare a prospectus provided the issuer’s securities are subject to restrictions on transfer and are owned by not more than 50 persons, not including employees and former employees of the issuer or its affiliates. Furthermore, private issuers’ securities can only be distributed to the persons described in section 2.4 of Regulation 45-106. These persons include officers, directors, employees, founders, family members of the officers and directors, close personal friends, close business associates and accredited investors. Recent amendmentsRecent amendments made to Regulation 45-106 and to the Policy Statement deal in particular with: the requirements for verifying the investor’s status; the definition of accredited investor; the requirement to obtain a risk acknowledgement form from certain investors; and the exemption for the minimum amount investment. Let us consider these amendments in greater detail. Responsibility and due diligence The CSA has clarified and set out in detail the requirements for issuers relying on a prospectus exemption in regard to their responsibility to verify that the conditions have been met. Some of the exemptions are based on income or assets tests. Other exemptions are based on relationships between the purchaser and a director, executive officer, founder or control person of the issuer, such as that of a family member, close personal friend, or close business associate. Issuers that distribute securities under these exemptions must obtain certain information from the purchaser in order to determine whether the purchaser has the requisite income, assets or relationship to meet the terms of the exemption. For example, the CSA expects the issuer to ask questions on the purchaser’s net income, financial assets or net assets, or to ask other questions about the purchaser’s financial circumstances; and to ask questions designed to confirm the nature and length of the relationship. It should also confirm the nature and length of the relationship with the director, executive officer, founder or control person identified by the purchaser. Don’t get caught The CSA has clearly indicated that standard representations included in a subscription agreement or initials beside a category of investor are insufficient as a representation unless the issuer has taken reasonable steps to verify the purchaser’s representations. To determine whether the issuer has taken reasonable steps, the authorities will consider the particular facts and circumstances of the purchaser, the offering, and the exemption being relied on. Factors that may be considered include the following: how the issuer identified or located the potential purchaser; what category of accredited investor the purchaser claims to meet; what type of relationship the purchaser claims to have and with which director, executive officer, founder or control person of the issuer; and how much and what type of background information is known about the purchaser. The issuer should keep on file all the necessary documents showing that it properly relied on the exemption for a period of at least eight years. Amendment to the exemption for distributions to “accredited investors” TrustsThe CSA has clarified what types of trusts may henceforth qualify as accredited investors by adding a new category of accredited investor. According to the new definition of accredited investor in Regulation 45-106, trusts established by an accredited investor for the benefit of the accredited investor’s family members of which a majority of the trustees are accredited investors and all of the beneficiaries are the accredited investor’s spouse, a former spouse of the accredited investor or a parent, grandparent, brother, sister, child or grandchild of that accredited investor, of that accredited investor’s spouse or of that accredited investor’s former spouse, are accredited investors. IndividualsThe exemption for a distribution to accredited investors does not apply to the distribution of securities to certain individuals referred to in the definition of the expression “accredited investor” in Regulation 45-106 unless the person distributing the securities obtains from the individual a signed risk acknowledgement in the form prescribed by Regulation 45-106 at the same time or before that individual signs the agreement to purchase the securities. The issuer must keep this form on file for a period of eight years following the distribution. This new requirement does not apply to the distribution of the securities of a private issuer. Minimum amount investment ($150,000) Since the adoption of the amendments to Regulation 45-106, the prospectus exemption for the minimum amount investment of $150,000 is only available to investors who are not individuals. The other requirements for this prospectus exemption remain unchanged. Conclusion By way of conclusion, it is clear from the new rules that the issuer must have a thorough understanding of the regulatory requirements and know its investors well, otherwise it would certainly be better advised to retain the services of a duly registered financial intermediary, whether it be an investment dealer or a dealer in the exempt market.
On October 5, 2022, Lexpert recognized the expertise of three of our partners in its 2022 Lexpert Special Edition: Mining. Josianne Beaudry, René Branchaud and Sébastien Vézina now rank among Canada’s leaders in the area of Mining. Josianne Beaudry is a partner and leader of the Business law group at Lavery. Her practice is primarily focused on securities law. She advises financial sector participants on the application of regulations relating to securities and corporate governance. René Branchaud practises in the fields of securities, mergers and acquisitions, as well as corporate law. With more than thirty years’ experience, he advises companies on matters such as incorporation and organization, the drafting of shareholder agreements, private placements, public issues, going public, dispositions, and takeovers. Sébastien Vézina is a partner in the firm’s Business Law group. Over the years, he has refined his practice and developed a particular interest in negotiating commercial agreements with companies in the mining and renewable energy sources, financial services and sports and entertainment industries. Generally, Sébastien's practice in these different industries includes public and private mergers and acquisitions, public and private financing, private sector investments and company buyouts, in particular cross-border transactions between Canada and the United States and international transactions, and the negotiation of various commercial agreements.
Lavery is pleased to announce that 67 of its lawyers have been recognized as leaders in their respective fields of expertise by The Best Lawyers in Canada 2023. The following lawyers also received the Lawyer of the Year award in the 2023 edition of The Best Lawyers in Canada: René Branchaud : Natural Resources Law Chantal Desjardins : Intellectual Property Law Bernard Larocque : Legal Malpractice Law Patrick A. Molinari : Health Care Law Consult the complete list of Lavery's lawyers and their fields of expertise: Josianne Beaudry : Mergers and Acquisitions Law / Mining Law Laurence Bich-Carrière : Class Action Litigation / Corporate and Commercial Litigation / Product Liability Law Dominic Boivert : Insurance Law (Ones To Watch) Luc R. Borduas : Corporate Law / Mergers and Acquisitions Law Daniel Bouchard : Environmental Law Laurence Bourgeois-Hatto : Workers' Compensation Law René Branchaud : Mining Law / Natural Resources Law / Securities Law Étienne Brassard : Equipment Finance Law / Mergers and Acquisitions Law / Real Estate Law Jules Brière : Aboriginal Law / Indigenous Practice / Administrative and Public Law / Health Care Law Myriam Brixi : Class Action Litigation Benoit Brouillette : Labour and Employment Law Richard Burgos : Mergers and Acquisitions Law / Corporate Law Marie-Claude Cantin : Insurance Law / Construction Law Brittany Carson : Labour and Employment Law Eugene Czolij : Corporate and Commercial Litigation France Camille De Mers : Mergers and Acquisitions Law (Ones To Watch) Chantal Desjardins : Intellectual Property Law Jean-Sébastien Desroches : Corporate Law / Mergers and Acquisitions Law Raymond Doray : Privacy and Data Security Law / Administrative and Public Law / Defamation and Media Law Christian Dumoulin : Mergers and Acquisitions Law Alain Y. Dussault : Intellectual Property Law Isabelle Duval : Family Law Chloé Fauchon : Municipal Law (Ones To Watch) Philippe Frère : Administrative and Public Law Simon Gagné : Labour and Employment Law Nicolas Gagnon : Construction Law Richard Gaudreault : Labour and Employment Law Danielle Gauthier : Labour and Employment Law Julie Gauvreau : Intellectual Property Law Michel Gélinas : Labour and Employment Law Caroline Harnois : Family Law / Family Law Mediation / Trusts and Estates Marie-Josée Hétu : Labour and Employment Law Alain Heyne : Banking and Finance Law Édith Jacques : Energy Law / Corporate Law Pierre Marc Johnson, Ad. E. : International Arbitration Marie-Hélène Jolicoeur : Labour and Employment Law Isabelle Jomphe : Intellectual Property Law Guillaume Laberge : Administrative and Public Law Jonathan Lacoste-Jobin : Insurance Law Awatif Lakhdar : Family Law Bernard Larocque : Professional Malpractice Law / Class Action Litigation / Insurance Law / Legal Malpractice Law Myriam Lavallée : Labour and Employment Law Guy Lavoie : Labour and Employment Law / Workers' Compensation Law Jean Legault : Banking and Finance Law / Insolvency and Financial Restructuring Law Carl Lessard : Workers' Compensation Law / Labour and Employment Law Josiane L'Heureux : Labour and Employment Law Despina Mandilaras : Construction Law / Corporate and Commercial Litigation (Ones To Watch) Hugh Mansfield : Intellectual Property Law Zeïneb Mellouli : Labour and Employment Law Patrick A. Molinari : Health Care Law André Paquette : Mergers and Acquisitions Law Luc Pariseau : Tax Law Ariane Pasquier : Labour and Employment Law Jacques Paul-Hus : Mergers and Acquisitions Law Hubert Pepin : Labour and Employment Law Martin Pichette : Insurance Law / Professional Malpractice Law Élisabeth Pinard : Family Law François Renaud : Banking and Finance Law / Structured Finance Law Judith Rochette : Insurance Law / Professional Malpractice Law Ian Rose FCIArb : Director and Officer Liability Practice / Insurance Law Chantal Saint-Onge : Corporate and Commercial Litigation (Ones To Watch) Éric Thibaudeau : Workers' Compensation Law André Vautour : Corporate Governance Practice / Corporate Law / Information Technology Law / Intellectual Property Law / Technology Law Bruno Verdon : Corporate and Commercial Litigation Sébastien Vézina : Mergers and Acquisitions Law Yanick Vlasak : Corporate and Commercial Litigation Jonathan Warin : Insolvency and Financial Restructuring Law These recognitions are further demonstration of the expertise and quality of legal services that characterize Lavery’s professionals.
Lavery is pleased to announce that 68 of its lawyers have been recognized as leaders in their respective fields of expertise by The Best Lawyers in Canada 2022. Lawyer of the Year The following lawyers also received the Lawyer of the Year award in the 2022 edition of The Best Lawyers in Canada: Caroline Harnois: Family Law Mediation Bernard Larocque: Professional Malpractice Law Consult the complete list of Lavery's lawyers and their fields of expertise: Josianne Beaudry : Mining Law / Mergers and Acquisitions Law Dominique Bélisle : Energy Law Laurence Bich-Carrière : Class Action Litigation René Branchaud : Mining Law / Natural Resources Law / Securities Law Étienne Brassard : Mergers and Acquisitions Law / Real Estate Law / Equipment Finance Law Dominic Boisvert: Insurance Law (Ones To Watch) Luc R. Borduas : Corporate Law Daniel Bouchard : Environmental Law Jules Brière : Administrative and Public Law / Health Care Law Myriam Brixi : Class Action Litigation Benoit Brouillette : Labour and Employment Law Richard Burgos : Corporate Law / Mergers and Acquisitions Law Marie-Claude Cantin : Construction Law / Insurance Law Charles Ceelen-Brasseur : Corporate Law (Ones To Watch) Eugène Czolij : Corporate and Commercial Litigation / Insolvency and Financial Restructuring Law Chantal Desjardins : Intellectual Property Law Jean-Sébastien Desroches : Corporate Law / Mergers and Acquisitions Law Michel Desrosiers : Labour and Employment Law Raymond Doray, Ad. E : Administrative and Public Law / Defamation and Media Law / Privacy and Data Security Law Christian Dumoulin : Mergers and Acquisitions Law Alain Y. Dussault : Intellectual Property Law Isabelle Duval : Family Law Chloé Fauchon: Municipal Law (Ones To Watch) Philippe Frère : Administrative and Public Law Simon Gagné : Labour and Employment Law Nicolas Gagnon : Construction Law Richard Gaudreault : Labour and Employment Law Danielle Gauthier : Labour and Employment Law Julie Gauvreau : Intellectual Property Law Michel Gélinas : Labour and Employment Law Caroline Harnois : Family Law / Family Law Mediation / Trusts and Estates Marie-Josée Hétu : Labour and Employment Law Alain Heyne : Banking and Finance Law Édith Jacques : Corporate Law / Energy Law Pierre Marc Johnson, Ad. E., G.O.Q., MSRC : International Arbitration Marie-Hélène Jolicoeur : Labour and Employment Law Isabelle Jomphe : Intellectual Property Law Guillaume Laberge: Administrative and Public Law Jonathan Lacoste-Jobin: Insurance Law Awatif Lakhdar: Family Law Bernard Larocque: Class Action Litigation / Insurance Law / Professional Malpractice Law Myriam Lavallée: Labour and Employment Law Guy Lavoie: Labour and Employment Law / Workers’ Compensation Law Jean Legault: Banking and Finance Law / Insolvency and Financial Restructuring Law Carl Lessard: Labour and Employment Law / Workers' Compensation Law Josiane L'Heureux: Labour and Employment Law Hugh Mansfield : Intellectual Property Law Zeïneb Mellouli : Labour and Employment Law Patrick A. Molinari, Ad.E., MSRC : Health Care Law André Paquette: Mergers and Acquisitions Law Luc Pariseau : Tax Law Jacques Paul-Hus : Mergers & Acquisitions Law Ariane Pasquier : Labour and Employment Law Hubert Pepin : Labour and Employment Law Martin Pichette : Insurance Law / Professional Malpractice Law Élisabeth Pinard : Family Law François Renaud : Banking and Finance Law Marc Rochefort : Securities Law Judith Rochette : Professional Malpractice Law Ian Rose : Director and Officer Liability Practice / Insurance Law Éric Thibaudeau: Workers' Compensation Law Philippe Tremblay : Construction Law / Corporate and Commercial Litigation Jean-Philippe Turgeon : Franchise Law André Vautour : Corporate Law / Energy Law / Information Technology Law / Intellectual Property Law / Private Funds Law / Technology Law Bruno Verdon : Corporate and Commercial Litigation Sébastien Vézina : Mergers and Acquisitions Law Yanick Vlasak : Corporate and Commercial Litigation Jonathan Warin : Insolvency and Financial Restructuring Law