Mining Law


Our firm has been active in this industry for more than fifty years, helping many companies achieve their business development objectives in Canada and abroad, in particular by implementing strategic alliances and various financing strategies. Lavery’s expertise in this field is recommended by the Canadian Legal Lexpert Directory.


  • Documents required for private placements and public offerings, debt and equity financing, and all documentation required by stock exchanges and securities commissions
  • Purchase and sale agreements for mineral rights and related assets
  • Joint ventures and shareholder agreements for mine operators and mining projects
  • Traditional bank financing, alternative financing structures (construction loans, asset-backed loans, mezzanine financing) and setting up of securities (including with regard to mobile and fixed mining assets, while respecting the legal requirements affecting mining)
  • Mergers, plans of arrangement, and business combinations
  • Construction contracts related to mine sites and their infrastructure (including highways and bridges leading to remote sites)
  • Expertise in construction and insurance law, including invitations to tender, building permits, relevant legislation, performance bonds, construction warranties, and the many types of insurance required to protect projects
  • Sale agreements, mineral supply agreements and other standard agreements (e.g. milling agreements, royalties, streaming agreements, etc.)
  • Legal advice on Aboriginal and treaty rights, including rights set out in land claims agreements, and strategic advice with respect to relations with Aboriginal communities
  • Impact benefit agreements (IBAs) and other agreements between mining companies and Aboriginal groups
  • Advice regarding the application of environmental laws and regulations, obtaining the necessary permits, and the environmental assessment process
  • Expertise in real estate law, including title searches, the transfer of mineral rights, and the various ways to hold mineral rights
  • Expertise in agricultural land law and representation in legal disputes before administrative tribunals
  • Prepare and conduct due diligence reviews
  • Advise concerning the exercise of expropriation rights under the Mining Act (Québec)
  • Representation in all issues concerning union certification and negotiation of collective agreements
  • Representation in all conciliation or arbitration proceedings or before the courts
  • Tax planning
  • Leases and installment sales of heavy mining equipment
  • Expertise in the use of private energy sources on mining sites: electricity, natural gas, wind, solar, etc.

Representative mandates

  • Legal advisors to Exploration Midland Inc. in a private placement for gross proceeds of more than $14 million (May 2015)
  • Legal advisors to Richmont Mines Inc. in a prospectus offering for gross proceeds of $38.5 million (February 2015)
  • Legal advisors to Magris Resources Inc. in Québec in the acquisition of Niobec Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of IAMGOLD Corporation, owner of the Niobec mine, and in the acquisition financing (January 2015)
  • Legal advisors to Redevances Aurifères Osisko Ltée in a private placement with the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec and the Fonds de solidarité FTQ for gross proceeds of about $42 million (November 2014).
  • Legal advisors to the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec in the financing transactions of Stornoway Diamond Corporation for a total investment by the Caisse of $100 million in a mix of debt, equity, and revenue streaming spring 2014).
  • IAMGOLD Corporation (formerly Cambior Inc.), counsel to the issuer: private placement of $43,316 million in flowthrough shares (February 2011)
  • Co-counsel to Integra Gold Corp in the acquisition of the Sigma-Lamaque mine located in Val-d'Or. The mine was acquired from Century Mining Corporation and Samson Bélair/Deloitte & Touche Inc., as receiver for Century. At the same time, Integra sold waste rock from the Sigma-Lamaque mine to a third party.

Canadian Legal Lexpert Directory

  1. Mining industry: reduction of red tape aimed at facilitating lithium exploration in Quebec

    Canada’s finance minister unveiled a series of legislative proposals on August 4, 2023 aimed at making significant changes to the flow-through share regime, particularly as regards lithium exploration. Although a number of these changes had already been announced in the 2023 federal budget, e.g. the inclusion of lithium brine in the “mineral resources” definition, they had not really affected junior exploration companies in Quebec since this type of lithium is virtually non-existent in the province. More targeted change However, the recent proposals include a more targeted change for mining companies exploring for traditional “hard rock” lithium, which is much more common in Quebec. These proposals include amending the definition of “mineral resources” to systematically includetraditional hard-rock lithium in the list set out in section 248 of the Income Tax Act (the “Act”). The consequences As a consequence of this change, the requirement for mining companies to obtain a certificate issued by Natural Resources Canada will be eliminated. The application process for this certificate represented a heavy administrative burden for exploration companies. Moreover, lengthy processing times often delayed the conclusion of flow-through share subscription agreements. This change is a timely one: growing numbers of companies are refocusing on exploring for lithium rather than for more traditional metals such as gold. This reflects not only the market’s infatuation with lithium, but also the recent 30% tax credit potentially available to investors incurring mining exploration expenses involving critical metals. Proceed with caution For the time being, however, these legislative proposals only apply to lithium; they do not cover all critical minerals. Mining exploration companies should proceed with caution if they plan to explore for other types of critical minerals such as graphite and rare earth elements, for example. This is because a mineral resources certificate issued by Natural Resources Canada may still required in those cases. Our team of professionals specializing in securities, mining law and taxation is available to answer any questions you may have concerning this new measure and to guide you in arranging a successful flow-through financing.

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  2. 2023 Quebec budget: tax holiday for investments in critical and strategic minerals

    On March 21, 2023, Quebec’s Minister of Finance tabled his budget for the 2023-2024 fiscal year. One of the budget’s key measures is the introduction of a new tax holiday in connection with major investment projects. At first glance, the new measure does not appear to be specifically aimed at the mining industry, but some mining companies involved in the extraction of critical and strategic minerals and planning substantial investments in the near future could greatly benefit from it. Under the new tax exemption, a corporation or partnership that carries out an investment project of more than $100 million in Quebec will be eligible, under certain conditions, for an income tax holiday and a holiday from the employer contribution to the Health Services Fund. As far as income tax is concerned, this new 10-year tax holiday consists of a deduction in the calculation of the company’s taxable income. The deduction is calculated by applying a rate of 15%, 20% or 25% to the cumulative total of eligible project expenditures. Since this tax measure is intended to promote investment outside major urban centres, the rate will vary according to the project’s location, ranging from 15% for projects in areas with high economic vitality, to 20% for projects in areas with intermediate economic vitality and up to 25% for those in areas with low economic vitality. The higher rates of 20% and 25% are more likely to apply to mining projects, which are generally located in remote areas with lower economic vitality. The critical and strategic minerals identified in the context of this measure are the following: antimony, bismuth, cadmium, caesium, copper, tin, gallium, indium, tellurium, zinc, cobalt, rare-earth elements, platinum-group elements, graphite (natural), lithium, magnesium, nickel, niobium, scandium, tantalum, titanium and vanadium. Let’s briefly consider the example of a mining company carrying out a major investment project for lithium mining in the Nord-du-Québec administrative region, designated by the Quebec government as a territory with intermediate economic vitality. During the investment phase, while the mine is being developed and built, the company incurs $200 million worth of eligible expenditures, which are capital expenditures for new mining equipment and heavy machinery for lithium extraction and processing. Evidently, the company will probably sustain a loss during the investment phase, and, because it has no taxable income, it will not be able to immediately benefit from the tax holiday. However, should the company have taxable income of $50 million in year 5, after four years of investment and mine development, it will be able to deduct $40 million of this taxable income under the new tax holiday, reducing its taxable income to $10 million for that year. This $40 million deduction is based on the application of the 20% rate for territories with intermediate economic vitality to the $200 million of eligible expenditures for the mining project. Another point relevant to the mining industry is that the income tax holiday will apply only to tax payable under the provisions of the Taxation Act. In other words, this tax holiday will not reduce the amounts payable under the Mining Tax Act. With respect to the Health Services Fund, companies will generally be eligible for an employer contribution holiday on wages paid to employees for pay periods falling within the exemption period for major investment projects. In order to benefit from this new tax holiday, companies will have to obtain an initial certificate, as well as annual attestations issued by the Quebec Minister of Finance. Our team of professionals specializing in mining and tax law is available to answer all your questions regarding this new measure and to assist you in your mining investment projects in Quebec.

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  3. Federal Budget 2022: Good News for Mining Exploration Compagnies!

    On April 7, 2022, Finance Minister Chrystia Freeland tabled the federal government’s new budget for 2022. This budget includes several tax measures relevant to the mining industry in Canada. The Canadian federal government intends to provide $3.8 billion over eight years to implement Canada’s first critical minerals strategy. One of the methods used to implement this new strategy and stimulate exploration is an investment vehicle well known to the mining industry: flow-through shares. The 2022 budget proposes to create a new 30% Critical Mineral Exploration Tax Credit (CMETC) for certain specified minerals. Specified minerals that would be eligible for the new CMETC are: copper, nickel, lithium, cobalt, graphite, rare earth elements, scandium, titanium, gallium, vanadium, tellurium, magnesium, zinc, platinum group metals and uranium. As for the regular mineral exploration tax credit, the exploration expenses must have been incurred in Canada. The renunciation of expenses must also have been made under flow-through share agreements entered into after budget day and before March 31, 2027. It is important to note that there will be no cumulation of tax credits. Eligible expenditures will not be eligible for both the proposed new CMETC and the 15% regular mineral exploration tax credit (METC). In order for exploration expenses to qualify for the CMETC, a qualified person (as defined in National Instrument 43–101 issued by the Canadian Securities Administrators) will further have to certify that the expenses renounced will be incurred in the course of an exploration project for specified minerals. On this point, the measure seems to insert a new legal test of “reasonable expectation” that the minerals targeted by the exploration are “primarily specified minerals”. No details have yet been issued on the mechanics of applying this test.  However, if the qualified person is unable to demonstrate that there is a reasonable expectation that the minerals targeted by the exploration project are predominantly specified minerals, the related exploration expenses would not be eligible for the CMETC and consequently, any credit granted for ineligible expenses would be recouped from the flow-through share holder who received the credit. Pending the tabling of a more detailed legislative version, careful attention and planning will therefore be required for new flow-through share financings to ensure that they meet the legal criteria for this new tax credit. Our team of professionals in securities, mining law and taxation is available to answer all your questions regarding this new measure and to assist you in the implementation of a successful flow-through financing: Josianne Beaudry René Branchaud Ali El Haskouri Charles-Hugo Gagné Éric Gélinas Sébastien Vézina

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  4. New environmental authorization scheme: how does this affect mining companies?

    A new environmental authorization scheme, which is intended to be a simplified version, was implemented under the Environmental Quality Act (“EQA”) and has been in effect since March 23, 2018. How does this new scheme affect mining companies? Is the authorization scheme truly simplified? What about the right to continue unauthorized operations that could benefit certain mining companies (also called an acquired right)? Under the new EQA authorization scheme, mining activities will be subject to different schemes depending on the risk they present. While the majority of activities are subject to ministerial authorization1, others may: benefit from exemptions be subject to the new scheme of declaring compliance be subject to the environmental impact assessment and review procedure if they present an elevated risk. The implementation of the EQA’s new environmental authorization scheme involves a review of the regulations adopted pursuant to this act. This bulletin refers to the Draft Regulation on Ministerial Authorization and the Statement of Compliance in Environmental Matters (“Draft Regulation”). This Draft Regulation has been published, but it is not currently in its final form and may be modified before it comes into force.2 Consequently, a regulatory watch is required.3 What authorizations are mining companies subject to? Depending on the nature of the activity, the applicable scheme ranges from exemption to environmental impact assessment and review procedure. 4 The general environmental authorization scheme Subject mining activities Article 22 of the EQA lists several activities whose implementation requires prior authorization from the Minister.  Mining activities are not part of this list. However, the 10th item of the list is “any other activity determined by government regulation.” At present, the Draft Regulation states that “any mining activity shall be subject to authorization.”5  This leaves little room for interpretation. Thus, with the exception of the specific cases currently provided for in the Draft Regulation, any mining activity requires an authorization from the Minister. Content of the authorization request It should be noted that in addition to the documents listed in the EQA, an authorization request for mining activity may have to be accompanied by the additional information and documents listed in the Draft Regulation.6 In addition, from now on, any documents submitted in support of an authorization request are considered as being public. It is up to the person submitting the request to specify whether certain documents include a confidential industrial or commercial secret. The decision as to the public nature rests with the Minister who notifies the applicant for authorization. This decision is legally binding upon the expiration of a period of 15 days following the transmission of the notice. Once this period has elapsed, the documents are made public, hence the importance of calling on the courts quickly if it is necessary to contest the Minister’s decision.7 Right to pursue an activity without environmental authorization In its former version, the general environmental authorization scheme in Article 22 of the EQA prohibited “undertaking the operation of any industry, the performance of an activity or use of an industrial process [...]” without having obtained a prior certificate of authorization. Because of the word “undertaking,” the case law recognized the possibility of pursuing an activity without authorization when it had been undertaken before the entry into force of the EQA on December 21, 1972. In its new version, Article 22 of the EQA no longer speaks of the need to obtain an authorization to undertake but rather to carry out an activity. This demonstrates the legislator’s willingness to no longer allow an activity to continue without environmental authorization. However, certain transitional provisions specifically provide that an activity may be pursued without authorization, providing that it must then rely on the wording of the government regulation on the issue to make sure8. At present, the text of the Draft Regulation does not support the conclusion that mining companies could benefit from a right to pursue an activity without authorization. Exemption scheme Certain mining activities considered to be of little risk to the environment are completely excluded from the obligation to obtain prior environmental authorization. The Draft Regulation currently provides that the following are exempt: milestone marking, geophysical, geological, or geochemical surveys, drilling work (unless performed in wetlands and water environments9) stripping and excavation work under certain conditions (unless they are carried out in wetlands and water environments or within 30 meters of such environments). The statement of compliance scheme The statement of compliance scheme allows for proceeding by transmitting to the Minister all of the documents required by the EQA and the applicable regulatory provisions by stating compliance to them.  In this case, if thirty days after the transmission of the documents, no follow-up has been made with the Declarant, he or she may begin the activity concerned. The Draft Regulation provides that drilling work carried out in the wetlands and water environments as a part of a project searching for mineral substances would be, under certain conditions, eligible for the statement of compliance.10 It should be noted that special provisions may be applied depending on the environment in which the work is carried out. Certain conditions are specific to work carried out in a pond, marsh, swamp or peatland10, and others are specific to work carried out on a lake or shore or in a lake or river12. The compliance statement scheme requires the production of extensive and professionally signed studies. If the processing time is shortened, the declarant’s task remains complicated. The environmental impact assessment and review procedure scheme Certain mining activities are subject to the environmental impact assessment and review procedure pursuant to the Regulation on the assessment and review of the environmental impact of certain projects13currently in force.  The purpose of this bulletin is not to discuss the procedure followed under this more complicated scheme that involves the intervention of the Bureau d’audiences publiques sur l’environnement [Bureau of Public Hearings on the Environment] (“BAPE”).14 The following mining activities are subject to this review procedure: The establishment of a uranium or rare earth mine; The establishment of a mine with a maximum daily metal-bearing ore mining capacity of 2000 metric tons or more; The establishment of a mine with a maximum daily ore (other than metal-bearing) mining capacity of 500 metric tons or more; Any increase in the daily maximum mining capacity of a mine thus making it reach or exceed the thresholds identified above;15 The establishment of a mine within an urban area identified in the construction and development plan of a RCM or in an Indian reservation or within 1000 meters of such an area or reservation; Any expansion of 50% or more of the operating area of a mine in certain specific cases identified in the regulation; After the BAPE’s work, the Minister makes a recommendation to the government as to the authorization requested.  Ultimately, it is the government that decides whether or not to issue the authorization. 16 Changes to the environmental authorization scheme are major. Mining companies have every interest in taking a closer look at it and monitoring the entry into force of the regulations that allow the implementation of this scheme in order to continue their operations in Québec legally.   Article 22 EQA.    The Minister of Sustainable Development, the Environment, and the Fight against Climate Change, Ms. Isabelle Melançon, mandated Ms. Suzanne Giguère and Mr. Jean Pronovost to give their opinion on the regulatory approach adopted by the Ministry. Here is the link to the SDEFCC press release: On July 19, a press release was issued by the SDEFCC announcing the intention of the Minister, Isabelle Melançon, to postpone the coming into force of the draft regulations considering the findings of Suzanne Giguère and Jean Pronovost. Here is a link to the SDEFCC press release: It should be noted that at the time of writing, most of the government regulations implementing the new environmental authorization scheme have been the subject of proposals published in the Official Gazette of Québec. These regulations, however, are not yet known in their final versions. The Draft Regulation on Ministerial Authorization and the Statement of Compliance in Environmental Matters, Appendix 1 (other activities subject to prior authorization), Section 2, Article 4. Draft Regulation on Ministerial Authorization and the Statement of Compliance in Environmental Matters, Article 38. The Regulation on certain transitional measures for the application of the Act to amend the Environment Quality Act to modernize the environmental authorization scheme and to amend other legislative provisions, in particular to reform the governance of the Green Fund currently provides, in a transitional manner, the documents that must be attached to a request for authorization. It should be noted that activities already in progress on March 23, 2018 and for which no environmental authorization was required pursuant to the EQA and that would now be subject to environmental authorization according to Article 22 of the EQA, could be continued without further formalities subject to any special provisions that may be provided for by a government regulation (Art. 290 of the Act to amend the Environment Quality Act to modernize the environmental authorization scheme and to amend other legislative provisions, in particular to reform the governance of the Green Fund (Bill 102, 2017, Chapter 4). It should be noted that the EQA includes a broad definition of wetlands and water environments. These environments include lakes, rivers, shorelines and flood plains of lakes and rivers, ponds, marshes, swamps and peatlands (Article 46.0.2 EQA). The Draft Regulation on Ministerial Authorization and the Statement of Compliance in Environmental Matters, Appendix 2 (activities subject to a statement of compliance), Section 8, Article 19 et seq. Draft Regulation on Ministerial Authorization and the Statement of Compliance in Environmental Matters, Appendix 2, Section 8, Article 21 Draft Regulation on Ministerial Authorization and the Statement of Compliance in Environmental Matters, Appendix 2, Section 8, Article 22 Decree 287-2018, March 21, 2018 Articles 31.1 et seq. EQA It should be noted that this does not apply to a mine existing as of March 23, 2018. Other standards apply to these mines for which any plan to increase the daily mining capacity by 50% or more is subject to the impact review procedure if this increase exceeds the applicable mining thresholds depending on the nature of the mined material. Article 31.5 EQA  

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  1. Lavery's expertise recognized by Chambers Global 2024

    We are pleased to announce that Lavery has once again been recognized in the 2024 edition of Chambers Global in the following sectors: Intellectual Property (Canada) - Band 4 Intellectual Property Litigation (Canada) - Band 4 These recognitions are further demonstration of the expertise and quality of legal services that characterize Lavery’s professionals. Two lawyers have been recognized as leaders in their respective areas of practice in the 2024 edition of the Chambers Global guide. Areas of expertise in which they are recognized: René Branchaud : Mining (International & Cross-Border) - Band 5 Sébastien Vézina : Mining (International & Cross-Border) - Band 5 Since 1990, Chambers and Partners' ranks the best law firms and lawyers across 200 jurisdictions throughout the world. The lawyers and law firms profiled in Chambers are selected following through a rigorous process of research and interviews with a broad spectrum of lawyers and their clients. The final selection is based on clearly defined criteria such as the quality of client service, legal expertise, and commercial astuteness. About LaveryLavery is the leading independent law firm in Québec. Its more than 200 professionals, based in Montréal, Québec City, Sherbrooke and Trois-Rivières, work every day to offer a full range of legal services to organizations doing business in Québec. Recognized by the most prestigious legal directories, Lavery professionals are at the heart of what is happening in the business world and are actively involved in their communities. The firm's expertise is frequently sought after by numerous national and international partners to provide support in cases under Québec jurisdiction.

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  2. Lavery announces return of Carole Gélinas as partner

    Lavery is pleased to announce the return of Carole Gélinas as a partner. Carole, who practiced law at Lavery from 2012 to 2019 on the real estate team, is returning to her roots. She has more than 30 years of experience in this field and is known for assisting corporations with mandates relating to the leasing, acquisition, sale and financing of real estate assets. She also has extensive experience in mining law. “I am delighted to be back with the Lavery family. The firm’s strength lies in its ability to offer a complete range of services, to manage major cases and to maintain a proximity to the business reality of its clients. I am pleased to once again be able to put my expertise in real estate and mining law,” says Carole Gélinas.

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  3. Lavery's expertise recognized by Chambers Canada 2021

    Lavery has been recognized in the following fields as a leader in the 2021 edition of the Chambers Canada guide: Corporate/Commercial (Québec Band 1, Highly Regarded) Employment and Labour (Québec Band 2) Energy and Natural Resources: Mining (Nationwide Band 5) The lawyers and law firms profiled in Chambers Canada are selected following through a rigorous process of research and interviews with a broad spectrum of lawyers and their clients. The final selection is based on clearly defined criteria such as the quality of client service, legal expertise, and commercial astuteness. Learn more about our professionals who have once again been recognized in Chambers Canada Guide 2021.. 

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